EARTH SCIENCE

WHAT IS EARTH SCIENCE?

The study of Earth’s interior, rocks and soil, atmosphere, oceans and outer space

 

EARTH SCIENCE IS ABOUT CONNECTIONS

Today scientists look more for the connections among the different parts the Earth- its oceans, atmosphere, living things and rocks and soil

 

HEAT ENERGY FROM INSIDE THE EARTH AND RADIATION FROM THE SUN PROVIDE ENERGY FOR EARTH’S PROCESSES. 

 

EARTH SCIENCE VOCABULARY

      Energy- the ability to cause change

      Evaporation- the process by which liquid changes into gas

      Convection- hot material rises, cools, then sinks until it is heated enough to rise again

      Radiation- energy that moves in certain types of waves

 

WHY IS EARTH SCIENCE IMPORTANT?

          Understanding Earth’s processes makes it possible to:

      Know what types  of crops to plant and when to plant them

      Know when to watch for dangerous weather

      Predict a volcano’s eruption in time to save people

 

CHAPTER 1: VIEWS OF EARTH TODAY

Big Idea:  Modern technology has changed the way we view and map the Earth.

 

THE FOUR PARTS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM

System- an organized group of parts that work together to form a whole

 

ATMOSPHERE:  THE MIXTURE OF GASES THAT SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE EARTH

COMPOSITION:

      NITROGEN (78%), OXYGEN (21%), CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER VAPOR, GASES

STUDIED WITH:

      WEATHER BALLONS, PLANES, SATELLITES

 

HYDROSPHERE:  MADE UP OF ALL THE WATER ON THE EARTH (OCEANS, LAKES, GLACIERS, RIVERS, UNDERGROUND)

WATER COVERS ¾ OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE

      ONLY 3% IS FRESH WATER

      NEARLY 70% IS IN GLACIERS AND POLAR ICE CAPS

STUDIED WITH:

      DEAP –SEA VEHICLES, BUOYS, SATELLITE IMAGES,DIVING SUITS

Affects the atmosphere when warm/cold ocean currents interact with the wind

 

BIOSPHERE:  INCLUDES ALL LIFE ON EARTH (IN THE AIR, WATER, AND ON LAND)

STUDIED WITH:

      SATELLITE PHOTOS TRACK YEARLY CHANGES IN PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE

      SPECIAL EQUIPMENT ALLOWS SCIENTISTS TO STUDY PLACES WITHOUT HARMING THEM

When trees exchange gases the biosphere interacts with the atmosphere

 

GEOSPHERE:  ALL FEATURES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE (CRUST) ALONG WITH THE MANTLE, INNER AND OUTER CORES.

STUDIED WITH:

      SATELLITE IMAGES

      SOUND WAVES

      COMPUTER MODELING

Matter moves from the geosphere to the atmosphere when volcanoes explode

 

ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE SYSTEM SHAPE THE PLANET’S SURFACE

      Atmosphere and Hydrosphere-  Not even the hardest stone can withstand the forces of wind and water.  Over millions of years rain, wind, and moving water carved the Grand Canyon

      Geosphere:  Landmasses pushing together have set off earthquakes and formed volcanoes and mountain ranges like the Andes around the world

      Biosphere:  Plants, animals and humans have also changed the Earth.  Walking or riding a bike over open land changes the surface of the planet