WHAT IS EARTH SCIENCE?
The study of Earth’s interior, rocks and soil, atmosphere, oceans and outer space
EARTH SCIENCE IS ABOUT CONNECTIONS
Today scientists look more for the connections among the different parts the Earth- its oceans, atmosphere, living things and rocks and soil
HEAT ENERGY FROM INSIDE THE EARTH AND RADIATION FROM THE SUN PROVIDE ENERGY FOR EARTH’S PROCESSES.
EARTH SCIENCE VOCABULARY
• Energy- the ability to cause change
• Evaporation- the process by which liquid changes into gas
• Convection- hot material rises, cools, then sinks until it is heated enough to rise again
• Radiation- energy that moves in certain types of waves
WHY IS EARTH SCIENCE IMPORTANT?
Understanding Earth’s processes makes it possible to:
• Know what types of crops to plant and when to plant them
• Know when to watch for dangerous weather
• Predict a volcano’s eruption in time to save people
CHAPTER 1: VIEWS OF EARTH TODAY
Big Idea: Modern technology has changed the way we view and map the Earth.
THE FOUR PARTS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM
System- an organized group of parts that work together to form a whole
ATMOSPHERE: THE MIXTURE OF GASES THAT SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE EARTH
• NITROGEN (78%), OXYGEN (21%), CARBON DIOXIDE, WATER VAPOR, GASES
• WEATHER BALLONS, PLANES, SATELLITES
HYDROSPHERE: MADE UP OF ALL THE WATER ON THE EARTH (OCEANS, LAKES, GLACIERS, RIVERS, UNDERGROUND)
WATER COVERS ¾ OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE
• ONLY 3% IS FRESH WATER
• NEARLY 70% IS IN GLACIERS AND POLAR ICE CAPS
• DEAP –SEA VEHICLES, BUOYS, SATELLITE IMAGES,DIVING SUITS
Affects the atmosphere when warm/cold ocean currents interact with the wind
BIOSPHERE: INCLUDES ALL LIFE ON EARTH (IN THE AIR, WATER, AND ON LAND)
• SATELLITE PHOTOS TRACK YEARLY CHANGES IN PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE
• SPECIAL EQUIPMENT ALLOWS SCIENTISTS TO STUDY PLACES WITHOUT HARMING THEM
When trees exchange gases the biosphere interacts with the atmosphere
GEOSPHERE: ALL FEATURES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE (CRUST) ALONG WITH THE MANTLE, INNER AND OUTER CORES.
• SATELLITE IMAGES
• SOUND WAVES
• COMPUTER MODELING
Matter moves from the geosphere to the atmosphere when volcanoes explode
ALL FOUR PARTS OF THE SYSTEM SHAPE THE PLANET’S SURFACE
• Atmosphere and Hydrosphere- Not even the hardest stone can withstand the forces of wind and water. Over millions of years rain, wind, and moving water carved the Grand Canyon
• Geosphere: Landmasses pushing together have set off earthquakes and formed volcanoes and mountain ranges like the Andes around the world
• Biosphere: Plants, animals and humans have also changed the Earth. Walking or riding a bike over open land changes the surface of the planet