This outline was produced by a student!! Thank you Olivia (09).
Water, Wind, and Ice Shapes Earth’s Surface
I. 5.2 MOVING WATER SHAPES LAND.
1. Drainage Basin- the area of land in which water drains into a stream system.
2. Divide- a ridge from which water drains to one side or the other.
3. Floodplain- an area of land on either side of a stream that is underwater when the stream floods.
4. Alluvial Fan- a fan-shaped deposit of sediment at the base of a mountain.
5. Delta- an area of land formed by the buildup of sediment at the end, or mouth, of a river.
6. Sinkhole- a basin that forms when the roof of a cave becomes so thin that is suddenly falls in.
II. STREAMS SHAPE EARTH’S SURFACE.
A. Running water is a major force shaping the landscape over most of Earth.
1. The running water shapes a variety of landforms by moving sediment in the processes of erosion and deposition.
2. Water flows on land in systems of streams and rivers.
B. Drainage Basins and Divides.
1. Streams flow into one another to form complex draining systems.
2. That area of land is called a drainage basin.
a. In most drainage basins the water eventually flows into a lake or an ocean.
b. For example, in the Mississippi river drainage basin, the water flows into the Mississippi, and then it drains into the Gulf of Mexico.
3. Drainage basins are separated by ridges called divides.
a. A divide is a ridge from which water drains to one side or the other.
i. Divides can run along high mountains.
ii. On flatter ground, the divide can be the highest line of land and can be hard to see.
b. Divides are the borders of drainage basins.
C. Valleys and floodplains.
a. As streams flow and carry sediment from the surface of the land, they form valleys.
b. In high mountains, streams often cut V- shaped valleys
a. An area of land on either side of a stream that is underwater when the stream floods.
b. The floodplain of a large river may be many kilometers wide.
3. Stream Channels
a. A stream flows through a valley; its channel may run straight in some parts and curve around other parts.
b. Curves and bends that from a twisting looping pattern in a stream channel are called meanders.
4. Alluvial Fans and Deltas.
a. An alluvial fan is a fan-shaped deposit of sediment at the base of a mountain.
i. It forms where a stream leaves a steep valley and enters a flatter plain.
ii. The stream slows down on the flatter ground.
b. A delta is an area of land formed by the buildup of sediment at the end, or mouth, of a river.
III. WATER MOVING UNDERGROUND FORMS CAVERNS.
A. Some rainwater evaporates instead of it all running off land.
B. The water table is at different distances below the surface in different places.
C. A sinkhole is a basin that forms when the roof of a cave becomes so thin that it suddenly falls in.