This outline was created by a student!!Thank you Chelsea (09).


Water, wind, and ice shape the Earthís surface.


I.          Waves and wind shape the land.


1.   longshore drift- the zigzag movement of sand along a beach

2. longshore current- the movement of water along a shore as waves strike the shore at an angle

3. sandbar- a ridge of sand built up by the action of waves and currents

4. barrier island- a long, narrow island that developes parallel to the coast

5. dune- a mound of sand built up by wind

6. loess- deposits of fine, wind-blown sediment

II.      Waves and currents shape shorelines.††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †† †††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††A. Stone pillars or sea stacks were formed by the movement of water

1.   The constant action of the waves breaking against the cliffs wore them away

2. Waves will continue to wear them away at one inch per year

B. The force of the waves is powered by wind.

1.   The waves can wear away rock

2. The waves can also move thousands of tons of sand on beaches

3. Moving air can pick up sand particles and form dunes

4. Wind can carry fine sediment for thousands of kilometers

C. Shorelines

1.   Some shorelines are made of steep rock cliffs and the waves wear away at the bottom of the cliffs. When the rocks above fall they are carried away by the ocean

2. While high, rocky coasts get worn away, low coastlines often get built up

3. When a longshore drift occurs itís because the angled waves carried sand up on to the shore, then gravity pulled the water and sand directly back into the water

4. The direction of a longshore current can change from day to day as the direction of the waves change

5. Longshore drift can cause a beach to shrink in one spot and grow in another

D. Sandbars and Barrier Islands

1.   As waves transport sand, they shape a variety of coastal landforms

2. Long shore currents deposit sand along shores causing sandbars

3. Spit- a sandbar that has built up above the waterís surface and is joined at the land on one end

4. Strong, longshore currents that mostly move in one direction build up sand over time, causing barrier islands

5. Barrier islands form a barrier between the mainland and the ocean waves

6. Plant life may take to barrier islands

7. Barrier islands constantly change shape due to hurricanes or other storms

III.  Wind Shapes Land

1.   Wind causes dunes to form

2. Wind has the power to transport and deposit sand just like water

3. Wind can shape landforms, especially in dry regions with few or no plant coverage

4. Wind can build up dunes, deposit layers of dust, or make a surface as hard as concrete

5. Dunes in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

A.Dune Formation

1.   A moderate wind can carry grains of sand to create ripples

2. A strong wind, however, actually picks up the sand particles, and when the wind hits a cliff the sand drops and builds up to form a dune

3. Some dunes start out as ripples that grow larger

4. Dunes form where there are strong winds and a constant supply of loose sand

5. Dunes are a variety of shapes and sizes

†††††††††† B. Loess

1. Wind storms carry millions of tons of dust that settle in deposits called loess

†† †††† 2. Loess is a valuable resource because it is good for farming

3. Loess covers up 10% of Earthís surface

††††††† 4. China has large amounts of loess

C. Desert Pavement

†††††††† 1. Wind not only deposits dust, but removes it too

2. When the wind blows away the dust and silt it leaves behind a layer of stones and gravel†††††††††††††††† 3. This stony surface is desert pavement because it looks like cobblestone

4. The coarse rock and gravel are too large to be picked up by the wind

IV. More About Waves

A.Waves are caused by wind

1. Waves occur when wind blows over a large surface of water

2. Some waves in oceans travel thousands of miles before reaching land

B. Wave Breaking

1.   Wave breaking is when the top of a wave can no longer support itself so it collapses

2. A wave breaks when it runs into shallow water

3. An individual wave breaks when its steepness exceeds its wave length

C. Types of Wind Waves

†††††† 1. Capillary waves- just ripples

2. Swells- stable, rolling wave ideal for surfing